In Press

Wang, F., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, 2013: Observed local and remote influences of vegetation on atmosphere across North American after excluding oceanic forcings. Journal of Climate, in press

Liu, W. and Z. Liu, 2013: A note on the stability indicator of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation . J. Climate, in press.

Liu, Z., X. Wen, E. Brady, B. Otto-Bliesner, G. Yu, H. Lu, H. Cheng, Y. Wang, W. Zheng, Y. Ding, L. Edwards, J. Cheng, W. Liu and H. Yang, 2013: Chinese cave records and East Asian Summer Monsoon. Quat. Sci. Rev., in press.

Back, Larissa, Karen Russ, Zhengyu Liu, Kuniaki Inoue, Jiaxu Zhang and Bette Otto-Bliesner.  2013: Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming. J. Clim., in press 

Liu Z., 2013: A Review of the Dynamics of Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability. National Taiwan University Climate Change Conference Book. C. P. Chang ed. In press

Jiang, Z., H. Yang, Z. Liu, Y. Zhu and N. Wen, 2013: Assessing the influence of regional SST modes on the winter temperature in China: the effect of tropical Pacific and Atlantic. J. Clim., in press.


Liu, W. and Z. Liu, 2013: A diagnostic indicator of the stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in CCCSM3.. J. Climate, 26, 1926-1938.

Liu, Z., Shu Wu, Shaoqing Zhang, Yun Liu and Xinyao Rong, 2013: Ensemble data assimilation in a simple coupled climate model: the role of ocean-atmosphere interaction. Adv. Atmos. Sci., doi:10.1007/s00376-013-2268-z.

Kutzbach, J., G. Chen, Z. Liu, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, 2013: Potential role of winter rainfall in explaining increased moisture in the Mediterranean and Middle East during periods of maximum orbitally-forced insolation seasonality. . Clim. Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00382-013-1692-1.

He, F., J. Shakun, P. Clark, A. Carlson,Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Kutzbach, 2013: Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere Climate during the last deglaciation. Nature, 494, 81-85.

Wen, N., Z. Liu, and Q. Liu, 2013: Observational Assessment of Non-Local Heat Flux Feedback in the North Atlantic by GEFA. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0257.1.

Yang, Haijun, Yuxing Wang and Zhengyu Liu, 2013: A modelling study of the Bjerknes compensation in the meridional heat transport in a freshening ocean . Tellus,A, 65, 18480-

Jiang, Z. H., W. Ren, Zhengyu. Liu and H. Yang, 2013: Analysis of water vapor transport characteristics during Meiyu over the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley using the Lagrangian method. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 71(2), 295-304

Ma D., Z. Liu, S. Lv, M. Notaro, X. Rong, G. Cheng and F. Wang, 2013: Impacts of afforestation on climate over the East Asian monsoon region.. Chinese Science Bull., 58: 2073-2081, doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5661-6

Song, Y. Y., Z. Wang and Z. Liu, 2013: Study of the main reasons causing the western Pacific SST anomaly. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (in Chinese)

Fan, L., S.-I. Shin, Q. Liu, and Z. Liu, 2013: Relative importance of tropical SST anomalies in forcing East Asian summer monsoon circulation, . Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2471–2477, doi:10.1002/grl.50494.

Wang F. Y., Z. Liu and M. Notaro, 2013: Extracting the dominant SST modes impacting North America climate: A Comprehensive Assessment in the observation. . J. Clim., 26, 5434-5452

Liu, W., Z. Liu, A. Hu, 2013: The stability of an evolving Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. . Geophysical Research Letters. 40(8): 1562-1568.

Lu, H., S. Yi, Z. Liu, J. Mason, D. Jiang, J. Cheng, T. Stevens, Z. Xu, E. Zhang, L. Jin, Z. Zhang, Z. Guo, Y. Wang and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2013: Variation of East Asian monsoon precipitation during the past 21 ka and potential CO2 forcing. . Geology, 41, 1023-1026

Chen Guangshan, Zhengyu Liu and J. E. Kutzbach, 2013: Reexamining the barrier effect of Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian Monsoon. Climate of Past, 9, 5019-5036, 10.5194/cpd-9-5019-2013.


Liu, Z., 2012: Dynamics of interdecadal climate variability: A historical perspective. J. Climate, 25, 1963-1995.

Liu Yinghui, Jeffrey R. Key, Zhengyu Liu, Xuanji Wang, and Stephen J. Vavrus, 2012: A Cloudier Arctic Expected with Diminishing Sea Ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L05705; doi:10.1029/2012GL051251 (highlighted by Nature Climate Change and AGU)

Clark, P., Shakun, J.D., Baker, P.A., Bartlein, P.J., Brewer, S., Brook, E.J., Carlson, A.E., Cheng, H., Kaufman, D., Liu, Z., Marchitto, T.M., Mix, A.C., Morrill, C., Otto-Bliesner, B., Pahnke, K., Russell, J.M., Adkins, J.F., Blois, J.L., Clark, J., Colman, S.C., Curry, W.B., Flower, B., He, F., Johnson, T.C., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Markgraf, V., McManus, J.X., Moreno, P., Mitrovica, J.X, Moreno, P.I., Williams, J.W., 2012: Global climate evolution during the last deglaciation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 109, 1134-1142; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1116619109.

Shakum J., P. Clark, Feng He, Zhengyu Liu, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Shaun A. Marcott, Alan C. Mix, Andreas Schmittner and Edouard Bard? 2012: Global warming preceded by increasing CO2 during the last deglaciation. Nature, 484, 49-54, DOI 10.1038/nature10915.

Hu, A., G. Meehl, W. Han, A. Timmermann, B. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, W. Washington, W. Large, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. Kimoto, K. Lambeck and B. Wu, 2012: Role of Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.,, doi:10.1073/pnas.1116014109.

Veloz, S. D., Williams, J. W., Blois, J. L., He, F., Otto-Bliesner, B. and Liu, Z., 2012: No-analog climates and shifting realized niches during the late quaternary: implications for 21st-century predictions by species distribution models. Global Change Biology, 18: 1698-1713. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02635.x.

Williams, J. W., Kharouba, H. M., Veloz, S., Vellend, M., McLachlan, J., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B. and He, F., 2012: The ice age ecologist: testing methods for reserve prioritization during the last global warming. Global Ecology and Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2012.00760.x.

Murray D. S., A. E. Carlson, B. S. Singer, F. S. Anslow, Feng He, Marc Caffee, Z. Liu, B. L. Otto-Bliesner and S. A. Marcott, 2012: Northern Hemisphere forcing of the last deglaciation in southern Patagonia. Geology, doi:10.1130/G32836.1.

Liu, Z., A. Carlson, F. He, E. Brady, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brook, M. Wehrenberg, P. Clark, S. Wu, J. Cheng, J. Zhang, D. Noone and J. Zhu, 2012: Younger Dryas cooling and the Greenland climate response to CO2. PNAS, doi/10.1073/pnas.1202183109.

Liu, Z., N. Wen and L. Fan, 2012: Assessing Atmospheric Response to Surface Forcing in the Observations. Part I: Cross Validation of Annual Response Using GEFA, LIM, and FDT. J. Climate,25,6796-6816.

Liu, Z., L. Fan, S.I, Shin and Q-Y. Liu, 2012: Assessing Atmospheric Response to Surface Forcing in the Observation: Part II: Cross-validation of seasonal response using GEFA and LIM. J. Climate,25,6817-6834.

Carlson, A., D. Ulman, F. Anslow, F. He., P. Clark, Z. Liu and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2012: Modeling the surface mass-balance response of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to Bolling Warming and its contribution to Meltwater Pulse 1A. Ear. Plane. Sci. Lett., 24-29, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.07.008.

Chen G-S., M. Notaro, Z. Liu and Y.Q. Liu, 2012: Simulated local and remote biophysical effects of afforestation over Southeast United States in boreal summer. J. Climate 25, 4511-4522.

Ma, D., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, G. Chen and Y. Liu, 2012: Simulated impacts of afforestation in East China monsoon region as modulated by ocean variability. Clim Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00382-012-1592-9

Wu, X., S. Zhang , Z. Liu, A. Rosati and T. Delworth, 2012: A study of impact of the geographic dependence of observing system on parameter estimation with an intermediate coupled model. Clim. Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1385-1.

Cheng J., P. Guo, F. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Liu, and W. Qiu. 2012, Reconstruction of Thermohaline Circulation Intensity anomaly over 20th Century under two kinds of modeling diagnostic features. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 42, 17781790. doi: 10.1007/s11430-012-4465-5

Wu X., S. Zhang, Z. Liu, A. Rosati, T. Delworth and Yun Liu, 2012: Impact of the Geographic-Dependent Parameter Optimization on Climate estimation and prediction: Simulation with an Intermediate Coupled Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 3956-3971, doi:

Liu, Z. and P. Braconnot. 2012: Modelling of tropical environment during the Quaternary. Chapter 9 in Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Tropics, ed. Sarah Metcalfe and David. Nelsh., Wiley-Blackwell.

Li, S., X. Rong, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, K. Fraedrich, 2012: Dynamic Analog Initialization for Ensemble Forecasting. Adv. Atmos. Sci., doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2244-z


Cheng, J., Liu, Z., He, F., and Otto-Bliesner, B. L. 2011: Impact of North Atlantic-GIN Sea exchange on deglaciation evolution of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Clim. Past Discuss., 7, 521-534, doi:10.5194/cpd-7-521-2011.

Frankignoul, C., N. Chouaib and Z. Liu, 2011: Estimating the Observed Atmospheric Response to SST Anomalies: Maximum Covariance Analysis, Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Assessment, and Maximum Response Estimation. J. Climate, 24, 2523-2539.

Fan, L., Z., Liu, and Q. Liu, 2011: Robust GEFA Assessment of Climate Feedback to SST EOF Modes. Advance in Atmospheric Sciences, 28, 907-912.

Liu, Z., 2011: Glacial Cycles and Indian Monsoon: A Southern Push. Science, 333,708-708.

Zhong, Y., Z. Liu and M. Notaro, 2011: A GEFA Assessment of Observed Global Ocean Influence on US Precipitation Variability: Attribution to Regional SST Variability Modes. J. Clim., 24, 693-707.

Marcott, Shaun A., Peter U. Clark, Laurie Padman,Gary P. Klinkhammer, Scott Springer, Zhengyu Liu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Anders E. Carlson, Andy Ungerer, June Padman, Feng He, Jun Cheng, and Andreas Schmittner, 2011: Ice-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events. PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1104772108.

Wu, S., Z. Liu, R. Zhang and T. Delworth, 2011: On the observed relationship between the Pacific decadal oscillation and the Atlantic Multi-decadal oscillation. J. Oceanogr., 67, 27-35. DOI 10.1007/s10872-011-0003-x.

Cheng, J., Z. Liu, F. He, B. Otto-Bliesner and E. Brady, 2011: Simulated Two-Stage Recovery of the Atlantic Overturning Circulation During the Last Deglaciation. AGU Monograph: Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts, Geophysical Monograph Series, 193: 75-92, doi: 10.1029/2010GM001014.

Zhang, S.Q., Z. Liu, A. Rosati and T. Delworth, 2011: A Study of Enhancive Parameter Correction with Coupled Data Assimilation for Climate Estimation and Prediction Using a Simple Coupled Model. Tellus A., 63, 10963, DOI: 10.3402/tellusa.v63i0.10963.

Shi, Z. G. , X. D. Liu, Y. B. Sun, Z. S. An, Z. Liu, and J. Kutzbach, 2011: Distinct responses of East Asian summer and winter monsoons to astronomical forcing. Clim. Past, 7, 1363-1370.


Chen, G-S, Z. Liu, J. Kutzbach, S. Clemens, W. Prell and X. Liu, 2010: Modeling the time-dependent response of the Asian summer monsoon to obliquity forcing in a coupled GCM: a PHASEMAP sensitivity experiment. Clim. Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0740-3.

Liu, Z., 2010: Bimodality in a Monostable Climate-Ecosystem: The Role of Climate Variability and Soil Moisture Memory. J. Climate, 23, 1447-1455.

Wen N., Z. Liu, Q. Liu and C. Frankignoul, 2010: Observed Atmospheric Response to Global SST Variability Modes: A unified assessment using GEFA. J. Climate, 23, 1739-1759.

Liu, Z., M. Notaro and R. Gallimore, 2010: Indirect Vegetation-Soil Moisture Feedback: with Application to Holocene North Africa Climate. Global Change Biology, 16, 1733-1743, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02087.x.

Yang, J. L., Q. Y. Liu and Z. Liu, 2010: Linking Observations of the Asian Monsoon to the Indian Ocean SST: Possible Roles of Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Dipole Mode. J. Clim., 23, 5889-5902.

Zhu X.H., K. Fraedrick, Z. Liu and R. Blender, 2010: A Demonstration of Long-Term Memory and Climate Predictability. J. Climate., 23, 5021-5029.

Cheng J., Z. Liu, F. He, B. Otto-Bliesner, P.W. Kuo and Z. X. Chen, 2010: Model evidence for climatic impact of thermohaline circulation on China at the century scale. Chinese Science Bull., 55, 3215-3221.

Liu, W., F. Bretherton, Z. Liu, L. Smith, H. Lu and C. Rutland, 2010: Breaking of Progressive Internal Gravity waves: Convective Instability and Shear Instability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 2243-2263.

Notaro, M., Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, J. Williams, D. Gutzler and S. Collins, 2010: Complex seasonal cycle of ecohydrology in the Southwest United States. J. Geophys. Res., 115, G04034, doi:10.1029/2010JG001382.


Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, P. Clark, J. Lynch-Steiglitz, A. Carlson, W. Curry, E. Brook, R. Jacob, D. Erickson, J. Kutzbach, J. Cheng, 2009: Transient Simulation of Last Deglaciation with a New Mechanism for Bolling-Allerod Warming. Science, 325, 310-314.

Zhu X. J. and Z. Liu, 2009: Tropical SST response to global warming in the Twentieth century. J. Clim., 22,1305-1312.

Mason, J., H. Lu, Y. Zhou, X. Miao, J.B. Swinehart, Z. Liu, R. J. Goble and S. Yi, 2009: Dune mobility and aridity at the desert margin of northern China at a time of peak monsoon strength. Geology, 37, 947-950.

Zhong Y. F. and Z. Liu, 2009: On the Mechanism of Pacific Multidecadal Climate Variability in CCSM3: The Role of Subpolar North Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2052-2076.

Yang, J. L., Q. Y. Liu and Z. Liu, L. Wu and F. Huang, 2009: Basin mode of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and northern hemisphere circumglobal teleconnection. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19705, doi:10.1029/2009GL039559, 2009.


White, W. B. and Z. Liu, 2008: Resonant excitation of the quasi-decadal oscillation by the 11-year signal in the Sun's irradiance. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C01002, doi:10.1029/2006JC004057.

Notaro, M., Y. Wang, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore and S. Levis, 2008: Combined statistical and dynamical assessment of simulated vegetation–rainfall interactions in North Africa during the mid-Holocene . Global Change Biology, 14, 347-368, doi:10.111/j.1365-2486.2007.01495.x.

Pan A., Q. Liu and Z. Liu, 2008: Formation mechanism of the “stability Gap” and the North Pacific Central mode water. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 47, 461-470.

Zhong Y., Z. Liu and R. Jacob, 2008: Origin of Pacific Multidecadal Variability in Community Climate System Model, Version 3 (CCSM3): A Combined Statistical and Dynamical Assessment. J. Climate, 21, 114-133.

Liu, Z., N. Wen and Y. Liu, 2008: On the assessment of non-local climate feedback: I: the generalized Equilibrium Feedback Analysis. J. Climate, 21, 134-148.

Liu Z. and N. Wen, 2008: On the assessment of non-local climate feedback: II: EFA-SVD analysis and optimal feedback modes. J. Climate, 21, 5404-5418.

Zhong Y. F. and Z. Liu, 2008: A joint statistical and dynamical assessment of atmospheric response to North Pacific oceanic variability in CCSM3. J. Clim., 21, 6044-6051.

Clemens, S. C., W. Prell, Z. Liu and G. Chen, 2008: Southern Hemisphere forcing of Pliocene d18O and the evolution of Indo-Asian monsoons. Paleoceanography, 23, PA4210, doi:10.1029/2008PA001638.

Lee D., Z. Liu and Y. Liu, 2008: Beyond thermo interaction between ocean and atmosphere: on the extratropical climate variability due to wind-induced SST. J. Climate, 21, 2001-2018.

White, W. B. and Z. Liu, 2008: Non-linear alignment of El Nino to the 11-yr solar cycle . Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19606,doi:10.1029/2008GL034831

Notaro M. and Z. Liu, 2008: Statistical and dynamical assessment of vegetation feedbacks on climate over boreal forest. Climate Dynamics, 31, 691-712.

Wyrwoll K-H., Z. Liu, G. Chen, J. Kutzbach and X. Liu, 2008: Sensitivity of Australia summer monsoon to tilt and precession forcing. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26, 3043-3057.

Nie, J.S., J. King, Z. Liu, S. Clemens, W. Prell and X. M. Fang, 2008: Surface-water freshening: A cause of North Pacific stratification from 2.75 Ma onward? Global and Planetary Change, 64, 49-52.

Bayler E. and Z. Liu, 2008: Wind-forced Dynamics of the Seasonal Southern South China Sea Gyre. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07014, doi:10.029/2007JC00519


Abram N. J., M. K. Gagan, Z. Liu, W. S. Hantoro , M. T. McCulloch and B. W. Suwargadi, 2007: Seasonal characteristics of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the Holocene epoch. Nature, 445, 299-302.

Notaro, M., S. J. Vavrus and Z. Liu, 2007: Global vegetation and climate change due to future increases in CO2 as projected by a fully coupled model with dynamic vegetation. J. Climate, 20, 70-90.

Yang, J, Q. Liu, S-P, Xie, Z. Liu and L. Wu, 2007: Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02708, doi:10.1029/2006GL028571.

Liu, Z., Y. Liu, L. Wu and R. Jacob, 2007: Seasonal and Long-Term Atmospheric Responses to Reemerging North Pacific Ocean Variability: A Combined Dynamical and Statistical Assessment. J. Climate, 20, 955–980.

Notaro M. and Z. Liu, 2007: Potential impact of Eurasian boreal forest on North Pacific Climate Variability. J. Climate, 20, 981-992

Zhu, X. J., J. L. Sun, Q. Liu, Z. Liu and J. Martin, 2007: A Synoptic Analysis of the Interannual Variability of Winter Cyclone Activity in the Aleutian Low Region. J. Climate, 20, 1523-1538.

Wu, L., F. He and Z. Liu, 2007: Atmospheric teleconnections of tropical Atlantic variability: interhemispheric, tropical-extratropical and cross-basin interactions. J. Climate, 20, 856-870.

Liu, Z., and M. Alexander, 2007: Atmospheric bridge, oceanic tunnel, and global climatic teleconnections. Rev. Geophys., 45, RG2005, doi:10.1029/2005RG000172.

Liu, Z., Y. Wang, R. Gallimore, F. Gasse, T. Johnson, P. deMenocal, J. Adkins, M. Notaro, I.C. Prentice, J. Kutzbach, R. Jacob, P. Behling, L. Wang and E. Ong, 2007: Simulating the transient evolution and abrupt change of Northern Africa atmosphere–ocean–terrestrial ecosystem in the Holocene. Quat. Sci. Rev.,26, July 2007, 1818-183, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.03.002.

Wang, Y., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, S. Levis, and J.E. Kutzbach, 2007: Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models. Climate of the Past, 3(4), 961-975.

Liu, X., Z. Liu, S. Clemens, W. Prell and J. Kutzbach, 2007: A Coupled Model Study of Glacial Asian Monsoon Variability and Indian Ocean Dipole. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, Vol. 85, 1-10.

Kutzbach, J., X. Liu, Z. Liu and G. Chen, 2007: Simulation of the evolutionary response of global summer monsoons to orbital forcing over the past 280,000 years. Clim. Dyn., 30, 6, DOI 10.1007/s00382-007-0308-z.


Liu, Z., M. Notaro, J. Kutzbach and N. Liu, 2006: Assessing global vegetation-climate feedbacks from the observation. J. Clim., 19 (5), 787–814.

Notaro, M., Z. Liu and J. Williams, 2006: Observed Vegetation–Climate Feedbacks in the United States. J. Clim., 19 (5), 763-786.

Vavrus S., M. Notaro and Z. Liu, 2006: A mechanism for abrupt climate change associated with tropical Pacific SSTs. J. Clim., 19, 242-256.

Liu, Q., N. Wen and Z. Liu, 2006: An observational study of the impact of the North Pacific SST on the atmosphere. Geophys. Re. Lett., 33, L18611, doi:10:1029/2006GL026082.

Liu Q Y, Z., Liu and Pan A J, 2006: Conceptual model about the interaction between El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in far west equatorial Pacific. Science in China, Series D-Earth Sciences, 49, 889-896.

Liu Yu, Zhisheng An, Haishou Ma, Qiufang, Cai, Z. Liu, J. Kutzbach, Jiangfeng Shi, Huiming Song, Junyan Sun, Yi Liang, Qiang Li, Yinke Yang and Lei Wang, 2006: Precipitation variation in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded by the tree rings since 850 AD and its relevance to the Northern Hemisphere temperature. Science in China, Series D. Earth Sciences, Vol.49, 408-420.

Liu, X., J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, S. Clemens and W. Prell, 2006: Hemispheric Insolation Forcing of the Indian Ocean and Asian Monsoon: Local versus Remote Impacts. J. Climate, 19, 695-6208.

Liu, Z., Y. Wang, R. Gallimore, M. Notaro, C. I. Prentice, 2006: On the cause of abrupt vegetation collapse in North Africa during the Holocene: Climate variability vs. vegetation feedback. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22709, doi:10.1.29/2006GL028062.

Wu L., Z. Liu, C. Li and Y. Sun, 2006: Extratroical control of recent tropical Pacific decadal climate variability: a relay teleconnection. Clim. Dyn, 28 (1), 99-112, doi: 10.1007/s00382-006-0198-5.

Liu Q Y, Z., Liu and Pan A J, 2006: Conceptual model about the interaction between El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in far west equatorial Pacific. Science in China, Series D-Earth Sciences, 49, 889-896.

Liu, Z., 2006: Glacial thermohaline circulation and climate: forcing from the North or South? Adv. Atmos. Sci., 22, 199-206


Pan A., Q. Liu and Z. Liu, 2005: Periodic forcing and ENSO suppression in the Cane-Zebiak model. J. Oceanography, Vol. 61 (No. 1), 109-113.

Wu L. and Z. Liu, 2005: North Atlantic decadal variability: air-sea coupling, oceanic memory, and potential northern hemisphere resonance. J. Clim., 18, 331-349.

Yang H., Q. Zhang, Y. Zhong, S. Vavrus, Z. Liu, 2005: How does extratropical warming affects ENSO? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01702, doi:10.1029/2004GL021624.

Zhao, Y., P. Braconnot, O. Marti, S.P. Harrison, C. Hewitt, A. Kitoh, Z. Liu, U. Mikolajewicz, B. Otto-Bliesner and S. L. Weber, 2005: A multi-model analysis of the role of the ocean on the African and Indian monsoon during the mid-Holocene. Clim. Dyn., 25, 777-800.

Liu, Z., S. Shin, R. Webb, W. Lewis and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2005: Atmospheric CO2 forcing on glacial thermohaline and climate. Geophys. Re. Lett, 32, L02706, doi:10.1029/2004GL021929.

Notaro, M., Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, S. Vavrus, J. Kutzbach, C. Prentice and R. Jacob, 2005: Simulated and observed preindustrial to modern vegetation and climate changes. J. Clim, 18, 3650-3671.

An Soon-Il, Axel Timmermann, Luis Bejarano, Fei-Fei Jin, Z. Liu, Sandy Tudhope, 2005: Modeling evidence for enhanced El Niño–Southern Oscillation amplitude during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoceagnoraphy, 19, doi:10.1029/2004PA001020.

Liu, Y, Q. Cai, J. Shi, M.K. Hughes, J. E. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, F. Ni and Z. An, 2005: Seasonal precipitation in the south-central Helen Mountain region, China, reconstructed from tree-ring width for the past 224 years. Can. J. For. Res., 35, 2403-2412

Yang H. and Z. Liu, 2005: Tropical-extratropical climate interaction as revealed in idealized coupled climate model experiments. Clim. Dyn., 24,863-879,doi:10.1007s00382-005-0021-8.

Liu, Z., S. Vavrus. F. He, N. Wen and Y. Zhong, 2005: Rethinking tropical ocean response to global warming: the enhanced equatorial warming. J. Clim., 18 (22), 4684-4700.

Wu, L., Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and X. Liu, 2005: Potential global climatic impacts of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24710, doi:10.1029/2005GL024812.

Wu L., D. Lee, Z. Liu, 2005: The 1976/77 North Pacific climate regime shift: the role of subtropical ocean adjustment and coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. J. Clim., 18, 5125-5140.

Wu L., F. He and Z. Liu, 2005: Coupled ocean-atmosphere response to North Atlantic SST: Tropical Atlantic Dipole and ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21712, 10.1029/2005GL024222.

Wen N., Z. Liu, C. Frankignoul, Q. Liu, 2005: Observations of SST, heat flux and ocean-atmosphere interaction over the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24619, doi:10.1029/2005GL024871


Liu, Z., Q. Zhang and L. Wu, 2004: Remote impact on tropical Atlantic climate variability: Statistical assessment and dynamic assessment. J. Clim., 17, 1529-1549.

Yang H., Z. Liu and H. Wang, 2004: Influence of extratropical thermal and wind forcings on equatorial thermocline in an ocean GCM. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 174-187.

Liu, Z. and L. Wu, 2004: Atmospheric response to North Pacific SST: The role of ocean-atmosphere coupling. J. Clim., 17, 1859-1882.

Yang H., Z. Liu and Q. Zhang, 2004: Tropical ocean decadal variability and the resonance of planetary wave basin modes: II: Numerical Study. J. Clim., 17, 1711-1721.

Liu, Z., S. Harrison, J. Kutzbach, B. Otto-Bliesner: 2004: Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback. Clim. Dyn.., 22, 157-182.

Liu, Z., W. Lewis and A. Ganopolski, 2004: An Acceleration Scheme for the Simulation of Long Term Climate Evolution. Climate Dyn., 22, 771-781.

Wu, L., Q. Zhang, and Z. Liu, 2004: Toward understanding tropical Atlantic variability using coupled modeling surgery. In Earth Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, C. Wang, S.-P. Xie and J.A. Carton (eds.), AGU Geophysical Monograph, 147, 157-170.

Branconnot, P., S.P. Harrison, S. Joussaume, C.D. Hewitt, A. Kitoh, J.E. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Syktus, and N. Weber, 2004: Evaluation of PMIP Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Simulations of the Mid-Holocene. In: Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa, R.W. Battarbee et al. (eds), Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 515-533


Shin S., Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady, J. Kutzbach, S. Harrison, 2003: A Simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum climate using the NCAR-CCSM. Clim. Dyn, 20, 127-151.

Liu, Z., 2003: Tropical ocean decadal variability and the resonance of planetary wave basin modes: I: Theory. J. Clim., 16, 1539-1550.

Wu. L, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, R. Jacob, D. Lee, and Y. Zhong, 2003: Pacific decadal variability: The Tropical Mode and The North Pacific Mode. J. Climate, 16, 1101-1120.

Wang, D. , J. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Liu, 2003. Relative importance of wind and buoyancy forcing for interdecadal regime shifts in the Pacific. Science in China, 46 (5) : 417-427

Wang, D. J. Wang, L. Wu, and Z. Liu, 2003: Regime shifts in the North Pacific simulated by a COADS-driven isopycnal model. Advances in Atmospheric sciences, 20, 743-754.

Harrison, S., J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, P. Bartlein, B. Otto-Bliesner, D. Muhs, I. Prentice and R. Thompson, 2003: Mid-Holocene climates of the Americas: a dynamical response to changes seasonality. Clim. Dyn., 20, 663-688.

Liu, Z. and H. Yang, 2003: Extratropical control on tropical climate: atmospheric bridge and oceanic tunnel. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 10.1029/2002GL016492.

Shin S., Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady, J. Kutzbach, 2003: Southern Ocean sea-ice control of the glacial North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, DOI:10.1029/2002GL015513.

Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Kutzbach, L. Li, C. Shields, 2003: Coupled climate simulations of the evolution of global monsoons in the Holocene. J. Clim., 16, 2472-2490.

Liu, Z., E. Brady and J. Lynch-Steiglitz, 2003: Global ocean response to orbital forcing in the Holocene. Paleoceanography, 18 (2), 1041, doi:10.1029/2002PA000819.

Miller, A. J., M.A. Alexander, G.J. Boer, F. Chai, K. Denman, D. J. Erickson, r. Frouin, A.J. Gabric, E.A. Laws, M.R. Lewis, Z. Liu, R. Murtugudde, S. Nakamoto, D.J. Nelson, J.R. Norris, J. C. Ohlmann, R. I. Perry, N. Schneider, K. M. Shell and A. Timmermann, 2003: Potential feedbacks between Pacific ocean ecosystems and interdecadal climate variations. Bull. Ame. Meteor. Soc., 84 (5), 617-633.

Yang H. and Z. Liu, 2003: Basin modes in a tropical-extratropical Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2751-2763.

Wu, L. and Z. Liu, 2003: Decadal variability in the North Pacific: the Eastern North Pacific Mode. J. Clim., 16, 3111-3131.

Wu, L., and Z. Liu, 2003: On the dynamics of North Atlantic decadal variability, Clivar Exchange, No.28.

Liu, X., J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, Z. An, Li L., 2003: The Tibetan Plateau as amplifier of orbital-scale variability of the East Asian monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(16), 1839, doi:10.1029/2003GL017510.

Otto-Bliesner, B., E. Brady, S. Shin, Z. Liu, C. Shields, 2003: Modeling El Nino and its tropical teleconnections during the glacial-interglacial cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, No.23, 2198, doi:10.1029/2003GL08553.

Loubere P., M. Richaud, Z. Liu and F. Mekik, 2003: Oceanic conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the onset of ENSO in the Holocene. Quaternary Research, 60, 142-148.


Inui T. and Z. Liu, 2002: An interpretation of Pacific thermocline variability. The effect of wind forcing on subduction. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1094-1105.

Liu, Z., 2002: A simple model study of ENSO suppression by external periodic forcing. J. Clim., 15, 1088-1098.

Vavrus, S., and Z. Liu, 2002: Understanding the response of the tropical atmosphere-ocean system to increased CO2 using Equilibrium Asynchronous Coupling. Climate Dyn, 19, 355-369.

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 2002: An OGCM Simulation of seasonal and interannual variability in the surface layer Pacific of the equatorial band. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 19, 219-235.

Wu L. and Z. Liu, 2002: Dynamic control of Pacific oceanic variability on the western boundary and marginal seas. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 96, 201-222.

Liu, Z., W. Wu, R. Gallimore and R. Jacob, 2002: Search for the origins of Pacific decadal climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 10.1029/2001GL013735.

Liu, Z., S. Shin, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Kutzbach and E. Brady, 2002: Tropical Cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum and Extratropical Ocean Ventilation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 10.1029/2001GL013938.

Yang H., Q. Liu, Z. Liu, D, Wang and X. Liu, 2002: A general circulation model study of the dynamics of the upper ocean circulation of the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res.., 107, 10.1029/2001JC001084, 22-1-14.

Liu, Q.Y., Y. Jia, H. Yang and Z. Liu, 2002: Seasonal variation mechanism of sea surface height in the north of the SCS. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 24, 134-141

Wu L. and Z. Liu, 2002: Is tropical Atlantic variability driven by the North Atlantic Oscillation? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2002GL014939.

Wu, L., Q. Zhang and Z. Liu, 2002: Searching for the role of ENSO in the tropical Atlantic variability. Clivar Exchanges, No.25, Vol.7 3/4

Liu, Z., 2002: How long is the memory of tropical ocean dynamics. J. Clim., 15, 3518-3522.


Yang, H., Q. Liu and Z. Liu, 2001: Sverdrup dynamics in the South China Sea. Prog. Natrual Sci., 10, 1035-1039

Liu, Q, H. Yang and Z. Liu, 2000: Seasonal features of Sverdrup circulation in the South China Sea. Prog. Natural Sci., 11, 202-206.

Liu, Z. and G. Philander, 2001: Tropical-extratropical oceanic exchange pathways. In Ocean Circulation and Climate: Observing and Modeling the Global Ocean. ed. G. Siedler et al., 247-254 (invited paper)

Liu, Z., H. Yang and Q. Liu, 2001: Regional dynamics of seasonal variability of sea surface height in the South China Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 272-284.

Delire C., P. Behling, M. T. Coe, J.A. Foley, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu and S. Vavrus, 2001: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2081-2084.

Stephens M., Z. Liu and H. Yang, 2001: Evolution of Subduction Planetary Waves with Application to North Pacific Decadal Thermocline Variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1733-1746.

Stephens M. Y. and Z. Liu, 2001: The response of the upper ocean to surface buoyancy forcing: a characteristic solution to wave propagation. Contemporary Mathematics, 275, 117-127

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 2001: Temperature Trend of the Last 40 Yr in the Upper Pacific Ocean. J. Clim., 14, 3738-3750.

Zhou W., M. John, Z. An, P.D. Deckker, Z. Liu, X. Liu, X. Lu, A. J. T. Jull, D. Donahue, 2001: Terrestrial evidence for a spatial structure of tropical-polar interconnections during the Younger Dryas Episode. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 191, 231-239.

Wu, L., Z. Liu and R. Gallimore, 2001: Pacific interdecadal variability in a coupled model. Dynamics of Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations and Climate, ed. B. Wang, China Meteological Press, 486-507

Liu Q.Y., Haijun Yang, Shaoxia Wang, Z. Liu, 2001: Dynamic features of long Rossby wave in the North Pacific subtropical countercurrent. Chinese Journal of Geophysics., 44, 27-37


Liu Z. and B. Huang, 2000: Causes of tropical warming trend. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, No. 13, 1935-1938.

Liu, Z., J. Kutzbach and L. Wu, 2000: Modeling climatic shift of El Nino variability in the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2265-2268.

Wu, L.; Z. Liu, and Hurlburt, H. E. 2000: Kelvin wave and Rossby wave interaction in the extratropical-tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , No. 9 , 1259-1262.

Liu Z. and L. Wu, 2000: Tropical Atlantic Oscillation in a coupled GCM. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 1, 26-36 (invited paper)

Wang, D. X. and Z. Liu, 2000: The pathway of interdecadal variability in the Pacific Ocean. Chinese Science Bulletin, 45, 1555-1561.

Liu, Z., S. Shin, P. Behling, W. Prell, M. Trend, S. Harrison and J. Kutzbach, 2000: Dynamic and observational constraints of sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 105-108.

Shin S. and Z. Liu, 2000: Response of equatorial thermocline to extratropical buoyancy forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2883-2905.

Vavrus, S., R. Gallimore and Z. Liu, 2000: A mixed-flux equilibrium asynchronous coupling scheme for accelerating convergence in ocean-atmosphere models. Clim. Dyn., 16. 821-831

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 2000: Temperature trends in the upper tropical Indian Ocean: 1955-1993. Dynamics of Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations and Climate, Memorial Volume for Prof. Zhu Baozhen, China Ocean Meteorological. 413-433


Liu, Z. and S. Shin, 1999: On thermocline ventilation of active and passive tracers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 357-360.

Liu, Z., 1999: Planetary wave modes in thermocline circulation: Non-Doppler-shift mode, advective mode and Green mode. Quat. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 125, 1315-1339.

Liu, Z., 1999: Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1036-1055.

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 1999: Pacific subtropical-tropical thermocline water exchange in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11,065-11,076.

Wu, L, Z. Liu and H. Hurlbert, 1999: The effect of continental slope on buoyancy-driven circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1881-1891.

Liu, Z., L. Wu and E. Bayler, 1999: Rossby wave -- coastal Kelvin wave interaction in the extratropics. I: low frequency adjustment in a closed basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2383-2404.

Liu, Z., L. Wu and H. Hurlburt, 1999: Rossby wave- Coastal Kelvin wave interaction in the extratropics: II: formation of island circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 29, 2405-2418.

Liu, Z., R. Gallimore, J. Kutzbach, W. Xu, Y. Golubev, P. Behling and R. Siegle, 1999: Modeling long term climate change with the Equilibrium Asynchronous Coupling scheme. Climate Dyn., 15, 325-340

Zhang R. H and Z. Liu, 1999: Decadal thermocline variability in the North Pacific: Two pathways around the subtropical gyre. J. Climate, 12, 3273-3296.

Wu, L., Z. Liu, and H. Hurlburt, 1999: The effect of north-south gyre width on the inertial recirculation. Geophys. & Astrophys. Fluid dynamics, 91, 45-63

Liu, Z., R. Jacobs, J. Kutzbach, S. Harrison and J. Anderson, 1999: Asian monsoon impact on El Nino in the early Holocene. PAGES Newsletter, Vol. 7, No. 2, 16-17


Liu, Z., 1998: The Role of Ocean in the Response of Tropical Climatology to Global Warming: The West–East SST Contrast. J. Climate. 11, 864-875.

Liu, Z. and B. Huang , 1998: Why is there a tritium maximum in the central equatorial Pacific thermocline ? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 1527-1533.

Liu, Z. and R.H. Zhang, 1998: Propagation and mechanism of decadal upper ocean variability in the North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 739-742.


Liu, Z. and B. Huang, 1997: A coupled theory of tropical climatology: Warm pool, cold tongue and Walker Circulation. J. Climate, 10, 1662-1679.

Liu, Z., 1997: Oceanic regulation of the atmospheric Walker circulation. Bulletin of American Meteological Society, 78, 407-412.

Yang, H. and Z. Liu, 1997: The three-dimensional chaotic ocean transport: the Great Ocean Barrier. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1258-1273.

Kutzbach J. and Z. Liu, 1997: Response of the African Monsoon to Orbital Forcing and Ocean Feedbacks in the Middle Holocene. Science, 278, 440-443.

Liu, Z., 1997: The Influence of Stratification on the Inertial Recirculation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 926-940.


Liu, Z., 1996: Destruction of inertial recirculation by annual wind migration. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 242-256.

Liu, Z., 1996: Thermocline variability in different dynamic regions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1633-1645.

Sun, D. and Z. Liu, 1996: Dynamic ocean-atmosphere coupling: a thermostat for the tropics. Science, 272, 1148-1150.

Liu, Z., 1996: Modeling the equatorial annual cycle with a linear coupled model. J. Climate, 9, 2376-2385.. J. Climate, 9, 2376-2385.

Kutzbach, J., P.Bartlein, J. Foley, S. Harrison, S. Hostetler, Z. Liu, E.C. Prentice and T. Webb, 1996: Potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions: a case study at 6000 years before present. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 727-736


Liu, Z. and S.G.H. Philander, 1995: How different wind patterns affect the tropical-subtropical thermocline circulation in the upper ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 449-462.


Liu,Z. and J. Pedlosky, 1994: Thermocline forced by annual and decadal surface temperature variation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 587-608.

Liu, Z. and S.P. Xie, 1994: Equatorward propagation of coupled air-sea disturbances with application to the annual cycle of the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 3807-3822.

Liu, Z. and H. Yang, 1994: The intergyre chaotic transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1768-1782.

Yang, H. and Z. Liu, 1994: Chaotic transport in ocean gyres. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 545-548.

Liu, Z. , 1994: A simple model of the mass exchange between the subtropical and tropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1153-1165.

Liu, Z., S.G.H.Philander and R. Pacanowski, 1994: A GCM study of tropical -subtropical upper ocean mass exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2606-2623.


Liu, Z., 1993: Thermocline forced by varying wind. I: spin-up and spin-down. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 2505-2522.

Liu, Z., 1993: Thermocline forced by varying wind. II: annual and decadal Ekman pumping. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 2523-2541.

Liu, Z., 1993: Interannual positive feedbacks in a simple extratropical air-sea coupling system. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3022-3028.

Liu, Z., 1993: Interannual planetary wave breaking in the presence of mean Ekman pumping and flow. J. Fluid Mechanics, 253, 45-65.

Liu Z., 1993: Penetration of interannual planetary waves across a gyre boundary. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean. 17, 169-186.

Liu, Z., J. Pedlosky, D. Marshall, T. Warnocke, 1993: On the feedback of the Rhines-Young pool on the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 1592-1596.

Liu, Z., 1993: A note on intergyre mass exchange due to a migrating wind. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean, 17, 157-167.


Liu Z., 1990: On the influence of the continental slope on the inertial western boundary current--the enhanced transport and recirculation. J. Mar. Res., 48, 254-284.

Zhu B.Z., F.F. Jin and Z. Liu. 1990: An introduction to the nonlinear dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean. (in Chinese). China Ocean Press. 328pp


Liu Z. 1989: Orographically forced oscillation in a barotropic atmosphere. Scientia Atmospherica Sinica, 13, 166-177.